Thursday, May 21, 2020
Sigmund Freud was born in Freiberg, Moravia in 1856. Freud was a distinguished child. He attended medical school in Vienna; from there he became actively embraced in research under the direction of a physiology. He was engrossed in neurophysiology and hoped for a position in that field but unfortunately there were not enough positions available. From there, he spent some of his years as a resident in neurology and director of a childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s ward in Berlin. Later on, he returned to Vienna and married his fiancÃ ©e, Martha Bernays. He continued his practice of neuropsychiatry in Vienna with Joseph Breuer as his assistant. Freud achieved fame by his books and lectures; which brought him Ã¢â¬Å"both fame and ostracism from mainstream of the medicalÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Freud believed that although our dreams contain these important messages, they are disguised when we are conscious. The unconscious mind doesnt link to our daily thoughts and feelings so therefore it must co mmunicate with us when we are unconscious (Mendham, 2003). The whole idea of the Oedipus complex is that Ã¢â¬Å" The young male, the Oedipus conflict stems from his natural love for his mother, a love which becomes sexual as his libidal energy transfers from the anal region to his genitals. Unfortunately for the boy, his father stands in the way of this love. The boy therefore feels aggression and envy towards this rival, his father, and also feels fear that the father will strike back at him. As the boy has noticed that women, his mother in particular, have no penises, he is struck by a great fear that his father will remove his penis, too. The anxiety is aggravated by the threats and discipline he incurs when caught masturbating by his parents. This castration anxiety outstrips his desire for his mother, so he represses the desire. Moreover, although the boy sees that though he cannot posses his mother, because his father does, he can posses her vicariously by identifying with his father and becoming as much like him as possible: this identification indoctrinates the boy into his appr opriate sexual role in life. A lasting trace of the Oedipal conflict is the superego,Show MoreRelatedMoore 1. Kristen Moore. Mrs. Kristy French. English Iii1443 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMoore 1 Kristen Moore Mrs. Kristy French English III Honors 7 May 2017 Analysis of the Relevancy of Freudian Psychology When one unintentionally says something that reveals their thoughts, this is known as a Freudian Slip. When one is being uptight and hostile, they are said to be acting Ã¢â¬Å"anal.Ã¢â¬ If one witnesses something embarrassing, they claim they hope to repress the memory. If one is a moody, maladaptive worrywart, they are said to be neurotic. All of these common colloquial terms go back toRead MoreThe Pioneer Work Of Dr. Sigmund Freud And Its Influences On The Development Of Psychology933 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Sigmund Freud and its influences on the development of Psychology. It assumes that without the innovative work of Freud the domain of psychology would not have reached its level of knowledge in this present-day. II FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s work and achievements In the twentieth century, Freud became one of the innovators of modern-day psychology. He questioned the function of our mind thoroughly. He not only contributed a lot to the domain of psychology, but also in literature and arts. His theories influencedRead MoreSigmund Freud And Its Impact On 20th Century Ego Psychology Essay1518 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesFreud, Psychoanalysis and the impact on 20th Century Ego Psychology Meghan Laubengeyer Temple University Psychologist, psychoanalyst, doctor of medicine, and author, Sigmund FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s contributions to the world of science and psychology were far from limited. The self and widely regarded scientist was born in Friedberg in 1856 where he lived before moving to Vienna, Germany, where he would later produce founding revelations at the birth of psychology as a science. From his beginningsRead MoreSigmund Freud s Theory Of Psychoanalysis1339 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesin the world of psychology. Through his practice and theories, Freud helped the global society to shape its perception on a number of issues including therapy, sexuality, personality, memory, and childhood. Among the theories developed by Sigmund Freud are the defense mechanism; the conscious and unconscious mind, the psychosexual development; the Id, Ego, and Superego; and the life and death instincts. Many prominent psychologists of the 20th century built their work on FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s legacy with otherRead MoreDr. Sigmund Freud s Theory Essay1662 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIcebergs, sexual relations with parents, and repressed memories are what every student understands as they walk out of introductory psychology classes. Until my graduate level class I had no idea that there was more to Dr. Sigmund FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s (1856-1939) thoughts and theories. In my mind Freud was the reason for victim blaming in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s culture and helped contribute to the systematic sexism that women face in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society; I even wrote about that in my response to some of his readings that he wasRead MoreFreud vs. Erickson on Human Development1761 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesFreud vs. Erikson Erik Erikson and Sigmund Freud are well known within the field of psychology for their theories on human development. These two men acted both as scholars and psychoanalysts. Erikson was a psychologist and Freud a psychiatrist. Erik Erikson studied and taught Freudian theory in Vienna, where Freud once studied at the University and practiced as a psychiatrist. Erikson believed that FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s developmental stages had discrepancies. Freud believed that Ã¢â¬Å"our personality is shaped byRead MoreI Chose To Do Research On The Ideas Of Sigmund Freud For1551 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagestook FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s concept of the divisions of the mind and changed his theory to fit with their thoughts on psychology. Albert Bandura also took on FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s ego defense mechanisms and shifted them to fit with his psychological theories. Although other theorists have taken on FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas, I still find what he has to say most interesting. Since so many people took FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s theories and d iscoveries and edited them, he probably had a solid foundation when creating his theories. Although some of FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s conceptsRead MoreAnna Freud. Bio Essay1357 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe formal discipline of psychology have primarily been dominated by male visionaries, but many notable women pioneered a role in the history of psychology between 1850 and 1950. Sigmund Freud was not the only Freudian to establish credibility in the field of psychology, as his youngest daughter Anna Freud pursued a career in psychology and made significant historic contributions. AnnaÃ¢â¬â¢s background, theoretical perspective, and contributions to the field of psychology will be discussed. On DecemberRead MoreEssay on Sigmund Freud1234 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSigmund Freud was a remarkable social scientist that changed psychology through out the world. He was the first major social scientist to propose a unified theory to understand and explain human behavior. No theory that has followed has been more complete, more complex, or more controversial. Some psychologists treat Freuds writings as a sacred text - if Freud said it, it must be true. On the other hand, many have accused Freud of being unscientific, suggesting theories that are too complicatedRead MoreThe Theory Of Personality Psychology1292 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Personality psychology is a branch of psychology that focuses on the differences between peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviors in terms of patterns, cognitions, and emotion. Personality psychology has been around for centuries, since HippocratesÃ¢â¬â¢ Four Humors. Personality psychology has taken on many forms and has continued to develop throughout the centu ries. Personality psychology is also developed with and from other fields of psychology like child development, behavioral, cognitive, and few others. Personality
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"Nothing to hide, nothing to fear - Computers and privacy donÃ¢â¬â¢t mix.Ã¢â¬ Discuss. Privacy is one of the most discussed topics in modern ICT today. The question being whether or not there is any element of privacy anymore when storing personal files and data on a computer or ICT system. Although it is arguable that the main problem with privacy in the computing world is with data and information that is stored online, and information that is collected about a user when they are surfing the internet, browsing certain pages, or downloading files via ftp or http protocol. The fact of the matter is that if a userÃ¢â¬â¢s personal computer is disconnected from the Internet and well secured with passwords that they do not share with others, they areÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Although the statement is arguably true in some situations, for example in the sense that there is nothing to fear in legal terms if there is no illegal content or unauthorised data hidden on ones computer, whether this content is found on phones, desktop computers, or even in personal cloud sto rage accounts from services such as Dropbox or Google cloud. Many find the quote to be incorrect or naÃ ¯ve however, due to the controversial surveillance methods utilised by the government specifically in the USA such as telephone tapping, and the monitoring of citizens internet communications, as well as using programs such as XKeyscore to Ã¢â¬Å"invadeÃ¢â¬ users privacy. Edward Snowden has leaked evidence of most, if not all of these methods over the last 2 years, resulting in widespread praise for his whistleblowing and a lot of protest towards the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s methods. The reason people dislike these methods, is due to the fact that there are many claims the probing is illegal, and they it is an invasion of citizens privacy, no matter whether or not the people who are being monitored are criminals. Ã¢â¬Å"The deeper problem with the nothing-to-hide argument is that it myopically views privacy as a form of secrecy. In contrast, understanding privacy as a plurality of related issues demonstrates that the disclosure ofShow MoreRelatedBusiness For Business Service Marketing1453 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesindustry and the good and the bad aspects of spotify. We will then analyze how Spotify can outcome the risks it faces and future goals it could take in continuing our success in the online music streaming business. Through using of the marketing mix the gaps model and CRM we can closely identify the key features for Spotify s improvement both in the digital service market but also for in current and potential consumers. SPOTIFY As you know Spotify is an online musicRead MoreInternet History, Security And Technology866 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesdevelopment perspective, opened the door that identified the different between reach and poor. From a negative perspective, we can imagine and determined what our future world look like because of revolutionary growth and technology transformation if we don t think and care about it. No questions that our global communication communicating system will be changing dramatically and going to be more than double what we have it today, this movement completely put life poor nations life at risk, forRead MoreThe Impact Of Internet Technology On The World867 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesdevelopment perspective, opened the door that identified the different between reach and poor. From a negative perspective, we can imagine and determined what our future world look like because of revolutionary growth and technology transformation if we don t think and care about it. No questions that our global communication communicating system will be changing dramatically and going to be more than double what we have it today, this movement completely put life poor nations life at risk, forRead MoreCloud Computing : Cloud Technology Essay956 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCloud Computing Cloud computing means data storing and accessing data over the Internet instead of your computer s hard drive. We can store data without any Physical Cable. We can access our data or our programs over the web or in any event have that information synchronizes with other information over the Net. WHAT IS CLOUD COMPUTING? Conveyed registering gives the workplace to get to bestowed resources and fundamental skeleton, offering organizations on enthusiasm over the framework to performRead MoreThe Current Selection Of Cloud Computing1150 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthe fact that clients are still suspicious about its realness. In light of an overview led by IDC in 2008, the major challenges that keep Cloud Computing from being received are perceived by associations are as per the following: A. Security and Privacy: The top most worry that everyone appears to concur as an issue with cloud is security. It is clear that the security issue has assumed the most vital part in upsetting cloud computing acknowledgement. Without uncertainty, putting your informationRead MoreStronger Internet Privacy Laws Are Unnecessary3382 Words Ã |Ã 14 PagesStronger Internet Privacy Laws Are Unnecessary The Internet, 2005 As you read, consider the following questions: 1. What company was sued because its Web site s advertisement placed cookies on the computers of people visiting the site? 2. In what European country was a privacy-protection law used to curtail free speech, according to Mishkin? The right to privacy has been around since the early part of the last century. It has evolved to applyÃ¢â¬âmore or lessÃ¢â¬âto a disparate array of socialRead MoreAsset Protection Is A Field That Is Undergoing Crucial1739 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesitems you offer. Also, for producers and retailers, the expanded commonness and association of fraud and theft is making it progressively hard to secure their assets. Information security is one of the major concerns to the reputation of retailer and privacy of its customers. The drop out can be disastrous, and associations must comprehend the threat and find a way to secure their assets and customers. The test has turned out to be more mind boggling with the rapid growth and development in the usageRead MoreSecurity And Privacy Of Mobile Cloud Computing6062 Words Ã |Ã 25 Pages Report on Security and Privacy Issues in Mobile Cloud Computing BY Kothinti Rajesh Reddy Read MoreIntegration Of Practice Management System1915 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagespopular and I feel over the years several hospitals and doctors offices will only be using the use of electronic health and medical records so they might as well use it now and be comfortable with it rather than waiting. I do not think that you should mix the integration of practice management system with electronic health records because I feel like it will be more complicated and may cause problems and confusion. I feel if they are going to use electronic health records that they might us well useRead MoreThe Information Security Risk On The Life And Solutions2617 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pageswhich used to be recorded on paper is now taking form of electronic record. Personal Information is now more feasible to access or destruct for the attacker because of weak IT security like virus or attack to the system or network. To protect the privacy, individual should secure their information. However, the only way to determine flaws and recognize threats, weather it is technical or non-technical or any other, is to find vulnerability and perform risk assessments. In this paper, we will discuss
Contemporary World Culture Globalization of McDonalds Globalization has affected almost every aspect of life in most all countries around the world from economic to culture with the exchange of goods, services and ideas influencing cultural changes around the world. Food is an important element in defining culture and the globalization of McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s is huge. Most people when they hear the name McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s immediately think of America. We will write a custom essay sample on Globalization of Mcdonalds or any similar topic only for you Order Now Equating McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s with America is sensible since they opened their first restaurant in America back in 1953 and over the years directly influenced American culture in a tremendous way. From the days of a childÃ¢â¬â¢s first words McDonalds naturally comes off their lips as a place they want to eat. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s terms such as super size me have influenced teen culture by making its way into slang. McDonalds is the cool place to eat while at the same time driving our fast past give it to me now American culture. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s made it easy for Americans to get what they want fast and move on with life. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s has and still is a strong expression of American culture. When a McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s opens in a new neighborhood in a different country, people think of Americanization of the local culture. In reality McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s more times than not has conformed to the local culture, not the other way around. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s also alters its regional menus to conform to local taste. McDonalds is in the business of making money and has found it makes the most money by giving people what they want. Different countries and cultures around the world have different needs and wants thus becoming an expression of global culture bring a common thread to pull together different cultures from around the world into one global fast food culture. How to cite Globalization of Mcdonalds, Papers
Sunday, April 26, 2020
Despite this the Monarch remains Head of State, akin to a President in European (but not American) political tradition. Queen Elizabeth II amp; Today the Sovereign has an essentially ceremonial role restricted in exercise of power by convention and public opinion. However the monarch does continue to exercise three essential rights: the right to be consulted, the right to advise and the right to warn. Prime ministers have weekly confidential meetings with the monarch. Originally the monarch possessed the right to choose any British citizen to be her Prime Minister and could call and dissolve Parliament whenever he or she wished. However, in accordance with the current unwritten constitution, the Prime Minister is the leader of the largest party in the House of Commons and Parliament is dissolved at the time suggested by him or her. The monarch retains the ability to deny giving a bill Royal Assent, although in modern times this becomes increasingly more unlikely, as it would cause a constitutional crisis. We will write a custom essay sample on Uk and Usa Political System or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Queen Anne was the last monarch to exercise this power, which she did on 11 March 1708 with regard to a bill for the settling of Militia in Scotland. Other royal powers called royal prerogative, such as patronage to appoint ministers and the ability to declare war, are exercised by the Prime Minister and the Cabinet, with the formal consent of the Queen. In formal terms, the Crown in Parliament is sovereign even though in practical terms the political head of the UK is the Prime Minister (Tony Blair since 2nd May, 1997). However, the real powers of position of the Monarch in the British Constitution should not be downplayed. The monarch does indeed retain some power, but it has to be used with discretion. She fulfils the necessary constitutional role as head of state, and with the absence of a distinct separation of powers in the American model and a strong second chamber, acts as a final check on executive power. If a time came to pass, for instance, when a law threatened the freedom or security of her subjects, the Queen could decline royal assent, free as she is from the eddies of party politics. Furthermore, armed removal of Parliament or Government would be difficult, as the Monarch remains commander-in-chief of the armed forces, who swear an oath of allegiance to her. Executive Tony Blair, current British prime minister and leader of the British Labour Party. The Government performs the Executive functions of the United Kingdom. The monarch appoints a Prime Minister, guided by the strict convention that the Prime Minister should be the member of the House of Commons most likely to be able to form a Government with the support of the House. The Prime Minister then selects the other Ministers which make up the Government and act as political heads of the various Government Departments. About twenty of the most senior government ministers make up the Cabinet. As in other parliamentary systems of government, the executive (called the government) is drawn from and is answerable to Parliament a successful vote of no confidence will force the government either to resign or to seek a parliamentary dissolution and a general elections. In practice members of parliament of all major parties are strictly controlled by whips who try to ensure they vote according to party policy. If the government has a large majority, then they are very unlikely to lose enough votes to be unable to pass legislation. In November 2005, the Blair government suffered its first defeat, on a proposal to extend the period for detaining terrorist suspects to 90 days. Before this, the last bill proposed by a government that was defeated in the House of Commons was the Shop Hours Bill in 1986, one of only three in the 20th century. Governments with a small majority, or coalition governments are much more vulnerable to defeat. They sometimes have to resort to extreme measures, such as wheeling in sick MPs, to get the necessary majority. Margaret Thatcher in 1983 and Tony Blair in 1997 were swept into power with such large majorities that even allowing for dissent within their parties, they were assured of winning practically all parliamentary votes, and thus were able to implement radical programmes of legislative reform and innovation. But other Prime Ministers, such as John Major in 1992 who enjoy only slender majorities can easily lose votes if relatively small numbers of their backbench MPs reject the whip and vote against the Governments proposals. As such, Governments with small majorities find it extremely difficult to implement controversial legislation and tend to become bogged down cutting deals with factions within their party or seeking assistance from other political parties. Government departments Arms of the British Government (a variation of the Royal Arms) The Government of the United Kingdom contains a number of ministries known mainly, though not exclusively as departments i. e. Ministry of Defense. These are politically led by a Government Minister who often a Secretary of State and member of the Cabinet. He or she may also be supported by a number of junior Ministers. Implementation of the Ministers decisions is carried out by a permanent politically neutral organization known as the civil service. Its constitutional role is to support the Government of the day regardless of which political party is in power. Unlike some other democracies, senior civil servants remain in post upon a change of Government. Administrative management of the Department is led by a head civil servant known in most Departments as a Permanent Secretary. The majority of the civil service staff in fact work in executive agencies, which are separate operational organizations reporting to Departments of State. Whitehall is often used as a synonym for the central core of the Civil Service. This is because most Government Departments have headquarters in and around the former Royal Palace of Whitehall. Legislative In the United Kingdom, parliament is the centre of the political system. Parliament is an bicameral with an upper house , House of Lords and a lower house, House of C ommons. It is the supreme legislative body (i. e. there is parliamentary sovereignty), and Government is drawn from and answerable to it. House of Commons House of Commons is also called as lower house in the parliament. The UK is divided into parliamentary constituencies of broadly equal population (decided by the Boundary Commission), each of which elects a Member of Parliament (MP) to the House of Commons. Of the 646 MPs there is currently only one who does not belong to a political party. In modern times, all Prime Ministers and Leaders of the Opposition have been drawn from the Commons, not the Lords. Alec Douglas-Home resigned from his peerages days after becoming Prime Minister in 1963, and the last Prime Minister before him from the Lords left in 1902 (the Marquess of Salisbury). One party usually has a majority in Parliament, because of the use of the First Past the Post electoral system, which has been conducive in creating the current two party systems. The monarch normally asks a person commissioned to form a government simply whether it can survive in the House of Commons, something which majority governments are expected to be able to do. In exceptional circumstances the monarch asks someone to form a government with a parliamentary minority  which in the event of no party having a majority requires the formation of a coalition government. This option is only ever taken at a time of national emergency, such as war-time. It was given in 1916 to Andrew Bonar Law, and when he declined, to David Lloyd George. It is worth noting that a government is not formed by a vote of the House of Commons, merely a commission from the monarch. The House of Commons gets its first chance to indicate confidence in the new government when it votes on the Speech from the Throne (the legislative programme proposed by the new government). House of Lords House of Lords is the upper house of the parliament of the United Kingdom. The House of Lords was previously a hereditary, aristocratic chamber. Major reform has been partially completed and it is currently a mixture of hereditary members, bishops of the Church of England known as Lords Spiritual and appointed members (life peers, with no hereditary right for their descendants to sit in the House). House of Lords currently acts to review legislation formed by the House of Commons, with the power to propose amendments, and exercises a suspense veto. This allows it to delay legislation it does not approve of for twelve months. However, the use of vetoes is limited by convention and the operation of the Parliament Acts: the Lords may not veto the money bills or major manifesto promises (see Salisbury convention). Persistent use of the veto can also be overturned by the Parliament Act by the Commons. Often governments will accept changes in legislation in order to avoid both the time delay, and the negative publicity of being seen to clash with the Lords. The House of Lords is currently also the final court of appeal within the United Kingdom, although in practice only a small subset of the House of Lords, known as the Law Lords, hears judicial cases. However, the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 outlines plans for a Supreme Court of the United Kingdom to replace the role of the Law Lords. The USA is a federal union of 50 states. The basic law is the constitution, adopted in 1787, which prescribes the structure of national government and lists its rights and fields of authority. Each state has its government and all of them have the dual character of both Federal and State government. The political system of the USA is divided into three branches: judicial, legislative and executive. Each branch holds a certain degree of power over the others, and all take part in the governmental process. The constitution of the USA Although the American system of government is based on Great Britains, it differs in having a written constitution, that is the bases of all government and law. The constitution of the US was adopted after the War of Independence on the 17th of September 1787. It lists the set of rules, law regulations, which provide the practical norms, regulating the work of the government. The document imbodied the practical theories of man of property. The main principle underline the constitution was as follows: Private property is the backbone of liberty. It was put forward by a rich plantation owner from Virginia James Madison, who is known to be a father of the constitution. The constitution consists of Preamble and seven articles. 27 amendments have so far been added to its original text. The first 10 amendments, known as the Bill of Rights, were added in a group in 1791. These amendments establish the individual rights and freedoms to all people of the states, including freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of worship etc. Americans fill that of all freedoms, proclaimed in the constitution, there is only one freedom the freedom of enterprise. But it means freedom of the wealthy people only. The 21st amendment limited the Presidents ruling by maximum two terms. The legislative branch Supreme legislative power in the American government lies with Congress: the Senate, the upper house; and the House of the Representatives the Lower House. Each state has its own government State Assemblies or, Legislatures with two houses. According to the constitution of the USA, all citizens of both sexes over 18 years of age has a right of voting, but in reality the number of voters is much smaller. The main task of Congress is to make federal laws, to levy federal taxes, to make rules for trade, to corn money, to organize Armed forces, to declare war, to make amendments to the constitution or put foreign treaties into effect. Under the constitution the US Senate has some special powers, not given to the House of representatives. It approves or disapproves the main presidential appointments: Ambassadors. Cabinet Members and federal judges; also ratify by a 2/3 vote treatments between the USA and foreign countries. The House of Representatives has a special power of its own to invent a bill to raise money. The Senate is composed of 100 members two from each of 50 states, who are elected for a term of * years. Although congressional elections take place every two years, only 1/3 of the Senate is reelected. A Senator must be at least 30ty years old, a citizen of the USA for 9 years and a resident of the state from which he is elected. Democrats sit in the western part of the chamber on Vice-president right. Republicans sit on his left. Vice- president presides over the Senate and conducts debates. The Senate is stable and more conservative than the House of Representatives and many Senators are more experienced politicians. The House of representatives has 450 members. The number of Representatives depends on the population of each state. A Representative must be at least 25 years age, a US citizen for 7 years and live in the state from which he is elected. Democrats sit on the Speakers right, republicans on his left. The Speaker presides over the House and conducts debates. The Speaker, like Vice-president, may vote. Most of the Congressmen are layers, businessman and bankers. The American press as an unrepresentative institution sometimes criticises the US Congress. The Congress in work A new Congress session begins on the 3rd of January each odd number year and continues for two years. A Congressman must work long and hard. But most of their work is done in committee meetings. Here bills are studied, experts are consulted, and recommendations are made to the whole House of Senate. During a two year term of a Congress, as many as 20000 bills are introduced. There are 16 standing or permanent committees in the Senate, and 22 in the House. They accept and improve some bills, but reject most of them. For a bill becomes a law it must be read, studied in committees, commented on and amended in the Senate or House chamber in which it was introduced. It is then voted upon. If it passes, it is sent to the other house where a similar procedure occurs. Members of both houses work together in conference committees if the chambers have passed different versions of the same bill. Groups who try to persuade Congressmen to vote for or against a bill are known as lobbies. When both houses of Congress pass a bill on which they agree, it is sent to the president for his signature. If President is disapproves, he vetoes and refusing to sign it, and sends it back to Congress. PresidentÃ¢â¬â¢s objection are read and debated. To overcome the Presidents veto, the bill must get a 2/3 majority in each chamber. Lobbyists Often discussing Congress of the USA, the third chamber is mentioned. Its a specific American phenomena called lobbies. Today ifs big corporations, social organisations, foreign diplomats, who try to influence lawmaking process in their favour. This is done with the help of lobbyists. Practically lobbyism (backstage influence in legislation) has become legal, it means, that the passing of a bill can be prevented, if it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t suit the interests of a definite group of big business. Lobbyists make all themselves legislative councils. More and more people realise that legislation is shaped as much by the hidden influences, as by the public debates. The executive branch The executive power in the USA belongs to the President and his Administration. The Presidency in the USA is the highest governmental office. President in the USA is the head of the state and the government, and also the commander-in-chief of the US Armed Forces. Vice-resident and the Cabinet assist president. The President and Vice- president are elected for a term of four years and can be reelected. President must be a natural-born citizen of the USA and at least 35 years old, and for at least 14 years resident of the USA. The term of office of the President begins on the 2nd of January. Presidential elections are head in two stages in November and December. Before the elections the candidates for Presidency tour the country, meeting people and delivering speeches. The president, as the chief formulator of public policy, often proposes legislation to Congress. The president can also veto (forbid) any bill passed by Congress. The veto can be overridden by a two-thirds vote in both the Senate and House of Representatives. As head of his political party, with ready access to the news media, the president can easily influence public opinion regarding issues and legislation that he deems vital. President conducts foreign affairs, signed documents, appoints diplomats, Cabinet Members, federal judges with the consent and advice of the Senate outlines the course of his administration threw Congress. Vice-president presides over the Senate, his other duties are indefinite. He takes the presidents office, if the president is unable to finish his term. So Vice-president is a forgotten man of the American politics. A Cabinet of 12 members assists the US President. Cabinet secretaries correspond to European ministers. They are heads of different departments and are responsible to President. Today these 13 departments are State, Treasury, Defence, Justice, Interior, Agriculture, Commerce, Labour, Health and Human Services, Housing and Urban Development, Transportation, Energy and Education. The State Department ranks ahead of others. The political power of the Secretary of the State is the second only to that of the president. He must maintains peace and negotiates economic and political treatness. Besides, President has an inner Cabinet, the so-called white-house office, i. e. immediate assistance and advises of the President. The House of Representatives may bring charges against the President, it is called impeachment a formal accusation against a public official by a legislative body, for treason, bribery and other high crimes. Under the Constitution, the president is primarily responsible for foreign relations with other nations. He often represents the United States abroad in consultations with other heads of state, and, through his officials, he negotiates treaties with over countries. Such treaties must be approved by a two-thirds vote of the Senate. Presidents also negotiate with other nations less formal executive agreements that are not subject to Senate approval. Inauguration Inauguration always takes place on the 20th of January, it is an official act of installing the President of the USA to his office. Inauguration is connected with some traditions. Thus the incumbent. President gives dinner on the eve in honour of the President elected and to conduct him threw the White House. By 12 oclock of the 2nd of January two participants of the ceremony and guests take their places in front of the Capitol. The central point of the ceremony is the taking of an oath by the President and the delivering of his Inaugural speech, it is regarded as a declaration of principles, proclaimed by the new administration. The ceremony ends in a military parade. The major political parties The US began as a one party political system. But gradually two-party system appeared. The present-day Democratic Party was founded in 1828, representing southern states. It united slave owners. The Republican Party was founded in 1854 and united people from Northeast, who were against slavering. The emblem of the Democratic Party is a donkey. The emblem of the Republican Party is an elephant. The main task of the parties is to win elections. One of the reasons of stability at the two party systems is family tradition to inherit politics from fathers.
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
History of the Korean Broadcasting Essays History of the Korean Broadcasting Paper History of the Korean Broadcasting Paper History of the Korean Broadcasting Early Stage(~1926) The first broadcasting of Korea was carried out by the Bureau of Post of the Chosun Trustee Government in 1924. At that time, the Bureau of Post acquired receiver and sender for the experimental broadcasting. The first experimental broadcasting was successful in November 1924 with 750 Kh/50W, and from 1925 on the Bureau of Post Wireless Laboratory broadcasted 4 times a week. the following year (1926) the Kyungsung Broadcasting Corporation was incorporated as a non-profit organization. Beginning(1927~1944) After a long period of experiments the formal broadcasting was launched in February 16, 1927, and the first wireless relay was introduced in June of the same year. From 1930 on, with the increase of power Two separate channels, one for Korean and one for Japanese, were installed. Jungdong Station was improved, and Yonhee Broadcasting Station was improved, and Yonhee Broadcasting Station was built. In 1933 the Yonhee Station sent two channels with the channel one in Japanese and the channel two in Korean. The original Kyungsung Broadcasting Corporation changed its name to the Kyungsung Central Broadcasting as a consequence of the expansion of the broadcasting network in 1935. In 1937, after two years, with the change of the frequency and increase of the power, the second broadcasting could be monitored countrywide by a simple receiver. Reshuffling and Reconstruction(1953~1960) Since the Korean independence and the Japanese surrender in the World War II, the second broadcasting has been changed to the first one with Korean language. After three years, in 1948 with establishment of the new government of the Republic of Korea, the Kyungsung Central Broadcasting was renamed to the National Broadcasting Corporation and operated under the auspices of the Ministry of Information. The Korean War in 1950 tumed the progress of the Korea Broadcasting System into a chaos. Despite the tumultuous experienced by the war, Korea became a regular member of the International Frequency Conference, and in 1952 became a member country of the ITU. During these tumultuous periods, the Chungjoo Broadcasting Station, Jeju Broadcasting Station and Namwon Broadcasting Station were newly opened. Growth(1961~1972) The Seoul International Broadcasting Center was established to promote gradually from the medium ware overseas broadcasting to the short wave. Along with this. new private broadcasting companies sprouted. In the religious sectors. the Christian Broadcasting System(CBS). International Gospels Broadcasting(HLKX). and in the commercial sectors, Busan Cultural Broadcasting(HLKV) were opened. Under the special settlement, the Army Broadcasting, United Nations Army Headquarters Broadcasting(VUNC), American Forces Korean Network(AFKN) were opened subsequently. During these periods, a new Television broadcasting appeared which hallmarked the technological breakthrough appeared which hallmarked the technological breakthrough in the broadcasting history. In 1956 Huang Tai Yong set up a private commercial television station(HLKZ-TV) by combining commercial concept with cultural aspects, but the HLKZ-TV had soon after a financial trouble and merged into the Daihan Broadcasting System. IN 1957 US Army opened AFKN-TV Transition(1973~1979) The Seoul International Broadcasting Center opened East South Asia Broadcasting in 1962, Vietnamese short wave Broadcasting 1964, German language broadcasting in 1961, Spanish language broadcasting in 1962. Finally the nationwide television broadcasting has been started with commercial advertisements. Meantime, Dong A Broadcasting(HLKJ), Dongyang Broadcasting(HlKC), TBCtelevision(HLCE), MBC Telvision(HLAC), and FM Station were born in these periods. In order to be a part of Satellite Communication Age, Korea participated in international relay via satellite in 1970. A typical example is to receive the Apollo 13 Moon Expedition through a communication satellite for 100 minutes. Transition(1973~1979) With television in full activity, the public KBS as well as the private broadcasting were in their zenith. Most important of all, the Korean Broadcasting Corporation was opened in March 3, 1973, and construction of a new broadcasting complex was under way in Youido, and the Complex was completed in March 1976. A historical broadcasting was lunched in November 1st. Overseas short wave broadcasting station was built in Kimje, and short wave transmission facilities were rapidly expanded. Internationally Korea received frequency band as well as orbit for the future satellite broadcasting. This became the landmark of satellite communication plans for DBS(Direct Broadcasting System). In 1974 Korea became a associate member of European Broadcasting Union(EBU). Maturity(1980~1990) Since 1980, one of the great transformation in Korean broadcasting history was to consolidate all the broadcasting companies under one umbrella. Under the recommendation of the Korean Broadcasting Association, the KBS took over all five private broadcasting companies consisting of TBS, DBS, Korea FM, Jonil Broadcasting, and Sohai Broadcasting. The Basic Press Control Act became effective in 1981, and the Broadcasting Commercial Advertisement Control Act was enacted. Experimental broadcasting of color television has been tested in December 1980, and in 1981 a new additional UHF channel for the high school educational broadcasting was taken over to form the Third Television Station. A new age of multiplex broadcasting was opened for the multi-sound broadcasting and the teletext broadcasting. Automation of transmission and relay was also accomplished. New broadcasting companies in this period were born including Seoul Broadcasting System(SBS), Education Broadcasting System(EBS), peace Broadcasting Company(PBS), Buddhist Broadcasting System(BBS), and Traffics Broadcasting System(TBS) with new FM stations. Future Broadcasting(1991~) It is difficult to predict what kind of course the future broadcasting will take, however we may imagine (1) the more diversified use of the existing broadcasting radiowave and (2) introduction of new media through research and development. New media in wireless system include AM Stereo Broadcasting, Satellite Broadcasting, and High Definition Television(HDTV), and in the cable system, videotext, teleconference, video information communication and Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting(ISDB). In satellite broadcasting, Korea joined INTELSAT in 1967, and lunched its first Mugoonghua(Rose of Sharon, the korean national flower) satellite, and, from July 1st, 1996, entered domestic satellite broadcasting service. the next step is of course the HDTV. Inventions in Korean Broadcasting History Digital Multimedia Broadcasting(DMB) Digital Multimedia Broadcasting (DMB) is a digital radio transmission technology developed in South Korea as part of the national IT project for sending multimedia such as TV, radio and datacasting to mobile devices such as mobile phones. This technology, sometimes known as mobile TV, should not be confused with Digital Audio Broadcasting which was developed as a research project for the European Union. DMB was originally developed in South Korea as the next generation digital technology to replace the FM radio. The worlds first official mobile TV service started in South Korea in May 2005, although trials were available much earlier. It can operate via satellite (S-DMB) or terrestrial (T-DMB) transmission. 3D Television (3DTV) A 3D television (3DTV) is a television set that employs techniques of 3D presentation, such as stereoscopic capture, multi-view capture, or 2D-plus-depth, and a 3D display Ã¢â¬â a special viewing device to project a television program into a realistic three-dimensional field. 3DTVs have been introduced in the markets by Panasonic, LG and Samsung. Major Broadcasting Companies in Korea KBS(Korea Broadcasting System_ Korea Broadcasting System is the oldest and biggest Broadcasting station in Korea. This public broadcasting network is best known for nightly newscasts and lavish historical dramas. KBS is a public organization that, by law, receives public funding from the Korean Government but is independently managed. As mentioned on the Korean Constitution, the president of KBS is recommended by its board of directors to the President of Korea. Political parties in Korea have the right to name members of the board of directors of KBS. Since the President of South Korea usually has leadership over the members of the ruling party, KBSs president is considered to be designated by the president of Korea. This procedure has incurred worries of political intervention in KBS governance and has led to many thinking that the current system of recruiting needs to be revised. SBS(Seoul Broadcasting Station) Seoul Broadcasting Station (SBS) KRX: 034120 is a national South Korean television and radio network. It is the only private commercial broadcaster with a wide regional Network to operate in the country. On March 17, 2009, the company legally became known as SBS, changing its corporate name from Seoul Broadcasting Station. ( ). Seoul Broadcasting Station is still commonly used today. SBS TV transmits on Channel 6 for Analog and Channel 16 for Digital. MBC(Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation) Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) is one of four major national South Korean television and radio networks. Munhwa is the Korean word for culture. Its flagship terrestrial television station is channel 11 on VHF in Seoul. Twice government-owned, the network is owned by the Foundation of Broadcast Culture (which owns 70% of the companys stock), while the Jung-Su Scholarship Foundation owns 30%. MBC receives no government subsidy, and derives its income almost entirely from commercial advertising. It has 19 regional stations, and 10 subsidiaries. The network evolved from Busan Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation, the first private broadcasting corporation in the country. As of 2011, MBC has over 4,000 employees. It has provided terrestrial digital TV service in the ATSC format since 2001, and T-DMB (Digital Multimedia Broadcasting) service since 2005. EBS(Educational Broadcasting System) Educational Broadcasting System( ) or EBS is an educational television and radio network covering South Korean territory. EBS strives to supplement school education and promote lifelong education for everyone in Korea. Korean Drama Korean drama (Korean: ) refers to televised dramas, in a miniseries format, produced in the Korean language. Many of these dramas have become popular throughout Asia and have contributed to the general phenomenon of the Korean wave, known as Hallyu, and also Drama Fever in some countries. Most popular Korean dramas have also become popular in other parts of the world such as Latin America, the Middle East, and elsewhere. Some of the most internationally popular Korean dramas are Winter Sonata, Dae Jang Geum, Full House, Stairway to Heaven, My Girl, Love Story in Harvard, Autumn in My Heart, My Lovely Sam Soon, Delightful Girl Choon-hyang, Yi San, Boys Over Flowers, Youre Beautiful, Brilliant Legacy, Queen Seondeok, The 1st Shop of Coffee Prince, King of Baking, Kim Tak Goo, IRIS, Personal Preference, Secret Garden, Dream High and Athena: Goddess of War. King of Baking, Kim Tak Goo had hit an outstanding 50. 8 with its last episode on KBS. The genres that most internationally popular Korean dramas belong to are often romance, romantic comedy and historical dramas. An exception includes IRIS and Athena: Goddess of War, which are spy action thrillers. Most other Korean dramas popular throughout Asia or beyond are either romances, romantic comedies or historical. Popular Korean historical dramas almost all hold a serious tone, while Korean dramas with a modern setting have a balanced share of both serious and more lighthearted themes. Genre of Korean Drama There are two main genres of Korean dramas, generally speaking. The first genre is similar to soap operas but without the never ending plot and frank sexual content. These dramas typically involve conflicts such as single and marital relationships, money bargaining, relationships between in-laws (usually between the mother-in-law and daughter-in-law), and often complicated love triangles while the female hero usually falls in love with the main character who may treat her badly since the beginning, instead of the one who always cares for her. These dramas last anywhere from 16 episodes to over 100 (most often not exceeding 200). Most plots of Korean soap operas are similar where a love triangle is always present. The other main genre is Korean historical dramas (also known as sa geuk), which are fictionalized dramatizations of Korean history. Korean historical dramas typically involve very complex story lines with elaborate costumes, sets and special effects. Martial arts, sword fighting and horsemanship are frequently a big component of Korean historical dramas as well. Korean dramas, whether the historical dramas or modern dramas, typically are characterized by excellent production quality, characters with depth, intelligent scriptwriting but largely relies on the use of archetypal characters. As they are designed as family entertainment to satisfy a broad audience, there are typically a combination of human interest story elements across most of the historical dramas interwoven themes of family, romance, friendship, martial arts, political strategy, wars, trade, etc. These stories are, therefore, usually of interest to all women and men, young and old. Entertainment Korean entertainment programs consist of four main genre: real variety, talent competition, comedy show, talk show and music concert. Especially, real variety show is the trend in Korean broadcasting industry. KBS, MBC and SBS, three major broadcasting companies, are competing with one another with their real variety shows. Happy Sunday Happy Sunday (Korean: ) is a Korean reality-variety show shown on the KBS2 network, which competes directly against MBCs Sunday Sunday Night and SBSs Good Sunday line-up. It consist of two segments: 1 Night and 2 Days and Qualifying Men. In the segment called 1 Night and 2 Days, hosted by Kang Ho Dong, the members go on an overnight trip to various places of interest in Korea. The aim of the segment is to recommend holiday destinations to its viewers. Qualifying Men is a show where a group of mostly middle-aged male celebrities try to complete missions (deemed to be of a quality required of a qualifying man) given by the Producer or sometimes thought of by the members. Infinite Challenge Infinite Challenge (Muhan Dojeon in Korean) is a Korean television entertainment program, distributed and syndicated by MBC. As of June and July 2009, it still has the largest market share for its timeslot, between 13. 8 percent and 19. 7 percent of Korean television viewers watched Muhan Dojeon at 6:40 PM every Saturday night. This makes it the top free-to-air television program on Saturday evening, and also the most viewed non-drama program in South Korea every week (excluding special sporting events, since November 2006, with the exception of January 2009, (April and May 2010). It has kept the same scheduled time, since first airing in 2005. Since 2009, it lasts for roughly 70 minutes, excluding ten minutes of advertising. Episodes are also frequently rerun on several Korean cable broadcasting channels. Since February 19, 2011 (237th episode), this programme has been aired with High Definition(HD). Good Sunday Good Sunday (Korean: ) is a South Korean reality-variety show shown on the SBS network, which competes directly against MBCs Our Sunday Night and KBS2s Happy Sunday line-up. Running Man and Kim Yu-naÃ¢â¬â¢s Kiss and Cry are aired in this program. Running Man (Korean: ) was first broadcast on July 11, 2010. This show is classified as an urban action variety; a never-before-seen new genre of variety shows. The MCs and guests play games and carry out missions in the landmark, and are required to win missions to earn Running Balls. The team with Running Balls will win, while the losing team will be punished. Kim Yu-nas Kiss Cry is a new survival audition program featuring champion figure skater, Kim Yu-na. Ten celebrities and ten professional skaters will form couples and challenge each other in figure skating to become the winning team, who will be performing with Kim Yu-na at a special ice show in August.
Monday, March 2, 2020
Affirmative Action Overview Affirmative action refers to policies that try to correct past discrimination in hiring, university admissions, and other candidate selection. The necessity of affirmative action is often debated. The concept of affirmative action is that positive steps should be taken to ensure equality, instead of ignoring discrimination or waiting for society to fix itself. Affirmative action becomes controversial when it is perceived as giving preference to minorities or women over other qualified candidates. The Origin of Affirmative Action Programs Former U.S. President John F. Kennedy used the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"affirmative actionÃ¢â¬ in 1961. In an executive order, President Kennedy required federal contractors to Ã¢â¬Å"take affirmative action to ensure that applicants are employedÃ¢â¬ ¦without regard to their race, creed, color, or national origin.Ã¢â¬ In 1965, President Lyndon Johnson issued an order that used the same language to call for nondiscrimination in government employment.Ã Ã It was not until 1967 that President Johnson addressed sex discrimination. He issued another executive order on October 13, 1967. It expanded his previous order and required the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s equal opportunity programs to Ã¢â¬Å"expressly embrace discrimination on account of sexÃ¢â¬ as they worked toward equality. The Need for Affirmative Action The legislation of the 1960s was part of a larger climate of seeking equality and justice for all members of society. Segregation had been legal for decades after the end of slavery. President Johnson argued for affirmative action: if two men were running a race, he said, but one had his legs bound together in shackles, they could not achieve a fair result by simply removing the shackles. Instead, the man who had been in chains should be allowed to make up the missing yards from the time he was bound. If striking down segregation laws could not instantly solve the problem, then positive steps of affirmative action could be used to achieve what President Johnson called Ã¢â¬Å"equality of result.Ã¢â¬ Some opponents of affirmative action saw it as a Ã¢â¬Å"quotaÃ¢â¬ system that unfairly demanded a certain number of minority candidates be hired no matter how qualified the competing white male candidate was. Affirmative action brought up different issues concerning women in the workplace.Ã There was little protest of women in traditional Ã¢â¬Å"womenÃ¢â¬â¢s jobsÃ¢â¬ - secretaries, nurses, elementary school teachers, etc. As more women began to work in jobs that had not been traditional womenÃ¢â¬â¢s jobs, there was an outcry that giving a job to a woman over a qualified male candidate would be Ã¢â¬Å"takingÃ¢â¬ the job from the man. The men needed the job, was the argument, but the women did not need to work. In her 1979 essay Ã¢â¬Å"The Importance of Work,Ã¢â¬ Gloria Steinem rejected the notion that women should not work if they do not Ã¢â¬Å"have to. She pointed out the double standard that employers never ask men with children at home if they need the job for which they are applying. She also argued that many women do, in fact, Ã¢â¬Å"needÃ¢â¬ their jobs. Work is a human right, not a male right, she wrote, and she criticized the false argument that independence for women is a luxury. New and Evolving Controversies Has affirmative action corrected past inequality? During the 1970s, the controversy over affirmative action often surfaced around the issues of government hiring and equal employment opportunity. Later, the affirmative action debate shifted away from the workplace and toward college admissions decisions. It has thus shifted away from women and back to a debate over race. There are roughly equal numbers of men and women admitted to higher education programs, and women have not been the focus of university admissions arguments. U.S. Supreme Court decisions have examined the affirmative action policies of competitive state schools such as the University of California and the University of Michigan. Although strict quotas have been struck down, a university admissions committee may consider minority status as one of many factors in admissions decisions as it selects a diverse student body.Ã Still Necessary? The Civil Rights Movement and the WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Liberation Movement achieved a radical transformation of what society accepted as normal. It is often difficult for subsequent generations to understand the need for affirmative action. They may have grown up intuitively knowing that Ã¢â¬Å"you canÃ¢â¬â¢t discriminate because thatÃ¢â¬â¢s illegal!Ã¢â¬ Ã While some opponents say affirmative action is outdated, others find that women still face a Ã¢â¬Å"glass ceilingÃ¢â¬ that prevents them from advancing past a certain point in the workplace.Ã Many organizations continue to promote inclusive policies, whether or not they use the term Ã¢â¬Å"affirmative action.Ã¢â¬ They fight discrimination on the basis of disability, sexual orientation, or family status (mothers or women who may become pregnant). Amid calls for a race-blind, neutral society, the debate over affirmative action continues.
Friday, February 14, 2020
Health final project - Research Paper Example The hazards of obesity can lead to several problems that affect your health, including diabetes heart disease, sleep apnea, cancer, high blood pressure and gerd. The danger with these diseases is dependent on how long you have been obese, what other health conditions you may have as well as connections with your overall health. If you want to ensure that you remain healthy, then fighting obesity can help you to overcome further health complications. The epidemic is one which is now by different types of obesity. The diagnosis is based on how much body fat an individual carries, compared to the percentage of muscle in the body. If this goes over recommended levels by a certain amount, then you also fall into a specific type of obesity. You can measure your obesity level through the following chart. If you are overweight or obese, you can easily find a cure to prevent future problems and diseases. By beginning to fight obesity, you will be able to enjoy life, prevent health problems and can take yourself out of the statistics of obesity. While the percentages are high for those that are fighting obesity, the epidemic can be overcome. The first step is to understand obesity and the several factors which cause the problem by following the following checklist: If you want to know more about how to overcome obesity, then you want to start by not being alone. The rise in the epidemic has led to several support centers that are willing to help you understand more about obesity as well as how to overcome this problem. You can begin by visiting the OAC, or the Obesity Action Coalition. This website can help you to understand the complexities of obesity, as well as how to overcome the problem. By working with others who understand obesity, you can easily begin to overcome obesity while moving into a healthy lifestyle. To start overcoming obesity, you can look at